Dr. Muscarella has authored many papers on the topics of public health, infection control, disinfection, sterilization, endoscope reprocessing, medical device designs and validations, operating room technique, root cause analyses, risk assessments, medical errors, central line-associated bloodstream infections, among many other topics.

Many of Dr. Muscarella’s articles have been published in renowned peer-reviewed medical journals. These articles include:

  1. Muscarella LF. Use of ethylene-oxide gas sterilisation to terminate multidrug-resistant bacterial outbreaks linked to duodenoscopes. BMJ Open Gastro 2019;6:e000282.
  2. Mehta AC, Muscarella LF. Bronchoscope-Related “Superbug” Infections. Chest 2019 Aug 14;pii:S0012-3692(19)31457-6. 
  3. Muscarella LF. Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related ‘superbugs’ during gastrointestinal endoscopyWorld J Gastrointest Endosc 2014;6(10):457-474.
  4. Muscarella LF. Inconsistencies in endoscope-reprocessing and infection-control guidelines. The importance of endoscope drying. Am J Gastroenterol 2006 Sep; 101(9):2147-54.
  5. Nelson DB, Muscarella LF. Current issues in endoscope reprocessing and infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy. World J Gastroenterol 2006 July 7;12(25):3953-3964.
  6. Muscarella LF. Other Possible Causes of a Well-Publicized Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Following Arthroscopy in TexasAdvances in Infectious Diseases 2013;3(2):134-145. 
  7. Muscarella LF. Assessment of the Reported Effectiveness of Five Different Quality-Improvement Initiatives for the Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Intensive Care UnitsOpen Epidemiol J 2012;5:5-12. 
  8. Muscarella LF. The study of a contaminated colonoscope. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010 Jul;8(7):577-580.
  9. Agrawal D, Muscarella LF. Delayed reprocessing of endoscopes. Gastrointest Endosc 2011 Apr;73(4):853-4. 
  10. Muscarella LF. Rapid Response: Published reductions in infection rates: Valid data or optimistic thinking? BMJ March 2010. 
  11. Muscarella LF. My Turn: Infection Rate Data: Science or Conjecture? Kitsap Sun December 12, 2010.
  12. Muscarella LF. Medical errors, infection-control breaches and the use of adulterated and misbranded medical devices. World J Clin Infect Dis Apr 25, 2012; 2(2): 13-27
  13. Muscarella LF. What is disinfection, sterilization?  Gastrointest Endosc 1999;50(2):301-3.
  14. Muscarella LF. Recommendations for the prevention of transmission of SARS during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2004;60(5):792-5.
  15. Muscarella LF. Infection control and its application to the administration of intravenous medications during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Am J Infect Control 2004 Aug;32(5):282-6.

The following trident of peer-reviewed articles authored (or co-authored) by Dr. Muscarella is likely the most comprehensive and historical collection published to date discussing the risk of reusable medical instrumentation (e.g., flexible endoscopes, including duodenoscopes and bronchoscopes) transmitting a deadly superbug:

  1. Muscarella LF. Use of ethylene-oxide gas sterilisation to terminate multidrug-resistant bacterial outbreaks linked to duodenoscopesBMJ Open Gastroenterol 2019 Aug 5;6(1):e000282. 
  2. Mehta AC, Muscarella LF. Related “Superbug” Infections. Chest 2019 Aug 14;pii:S0012-3692(19)31457-6. 
  3. Muscarella LF. Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related “superbugs” during gastrointestinal endoscopy. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2014 Oct 16;6(10):457-74. 

Other articles by Dr. Muscarella include:

  1. Muscarella LF. The investigation and prevention of infectious outbreaks during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopy 2010 Nov;42(11):957-9. [Featured editorial]
  2. Muscarella LF. Evaluation of the risk of transmission of bacterial biofilms and Clostridium difficile during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroenterol Nurs 2010 Jan-Feb;33(1):28-35.
  3. Muscarella LF. Reassessment of the risk of healthcare-acquired infection during rigid laryngoscopy. J Hosp Infect 2008;68(2):101-107.
  4. Muscarella LF. The prevention of disease transmission during flexible laryngoscopy.    Am J Infect Control 2007;35:536-44.
  5. Muscarella LF. Recommendations to resolve inconsistent guidelines for reprocessing sheathed and un-sheathed rigid laryngoscopes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007 Apr;28(4):504-7.
  6. Muscarella LF. Endoscopic shuffling, infection control, and the clinical practice of push enteroscopy. Gastroenterol Nurs 2007 Mar-Apr;30(2):109-15.
  7. Muscarella LF. The risk of disease transmission associated with inadequate disinfection of gastrointestinal flexible endoscopes. J Hosp Infect 2006 Jul;63(3):345-347.
  8. Muscarella LF. Critique of a FDA-CDC public health advisory that discusses inadequate automated bronchoscope reprocessing. J Hosp Infect 2006 Oct;64(2):191-3.
  9. Hamasuna R, Nose K, Osada Y, Muscarella LF. Correction: high-level disinfection of cystoscopic equipment with ortho-phthalaldehyde solution. J Hosp Infect 2005 Dec;61(4):363-4.
  10. Muscarella LF, DiMarino AJ. “Endoscope disinfection.” In: Advanced Therapy in Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, 5th Edition. Chapter 4, pp. 23-28 (2004).
  11. Muscarella LF. Dear Los Angeles Times: The risk of disease transmission during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroenterology Nurs 2004 Nov-Dec;27(6):271-8.
  12. Muscarella LF, Haponik EF, Perl TM. The importance of bronchoscope reprocessing guidelines. Raising the standard of care. Chest 2004;126:1001-3.
  13. Muscarella LF. Is gastrointestinal endoscopy a risk factor for Whipple’s disease? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004 Jun;25(6):453-4; author reply 455.
  14. Muscarella LF. Contribution of tap water and environmental surfaces to nosocomial transmission of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004 Apr;25(4):342-5.
  15. Muscarella LF. Bronchoscope reprocessing: Are changes needed? Chest 14 January 2004.
  16. Muscarella LF. Application of environmental sampling to flexible endoscope reprocessing: The importance of monitoring the rinse water. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 May;23:285-9.
  17. Muscarella LF. Leading a horse to water. Are crucial lessons in endoscopy and outbreak investigations being learned? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 Jul;23(7):358-60.
  18. Muscarella LF. Limited surveillance in the endoscopic setting: Has its time arrived? AJIC Am J Infect Control 2002 Feb;30(1):66-7.
  19. Muscarella LF. Anthrax: Is there a risk of cross-infection during endoscopy? Gastroenterology Nurs 2002 Mar-Apr;25(2):46-8.
  20. Muscarella LF. Recommendations for preventing hepatitis C virus infection: Analysis of a Brooklyn endoscopy clinic’s outbreak. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol 2001 Nov;22(11):669.
  21. Muscarella LF. Disinfecting endoscopes immediately before the first patient of the day. AORN J 2001 June 2001;73(6):1159-1163.
  22. Muscarella LF. Current instrument reprocessing practices.  Results of a national survey.  Gastroenterol Nurs 2001;24(5):253-60.
  23. Muscarella LF.  Biopsy forceps:  Disposable or reusable?  Gastroenterol Nurs 2001; 24(2):64-8.
  24. Muscarella LF.  Déjà vu … all over again.  The importance of instrument drying. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000 Oct;21(10):628-9.
  25. Muscarella LF.  Automatic flexible endoscope reprocessors.  Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2000 Apr;10(2):245-257.
  26. Muscarella LF.  Commentary.  Gastroenterol Nurs 1999 Jul-Aug;22(4):179-80.
  27. Muscarella LF.  Are all sterilization processes alike?  AORN J 1998 May;67:966-76.
  28. Muscarella LF.  Soaking endoscopes in 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes:  a risk management perspective.  Am J Infect Control 1998 Apr;26(2):153-5.
  29. Muscarella LF.  Anticipated reliability of liquid chemical sterilants.  Am J Infect Control 1998 Apr;26(2):155-6.
  30. Muscarella LF.  Instrument design and cross-infection.  AORN J 1998 Mar;67(3):552-6.
  31. Muscarella LF.  Advantages and limitations of automatic flexible endoscope reprocessors.  AJIC Am J Infect Control 1996;24:304-9.
  32. Muscarella LF.  High-level disinfection or ‘sterilization’ of endoscopes? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:183-7.
  33. Muscarella LF. Sterilizing dental equipment. Nature Medicine 1995 Dec;1(12):1223-5.
  34. Muscarella LF.  Abdominal fluid contamination of laparoscopic insufflators. J Gynecologic Surg 1994;10(1):51-3.
  35. Muscarella LF.  The difficulty of reprocessing reusable rigid endoscopic instruments:  Are disposables the solution?  J Gynecologic Surg 1994;10(2):121-3.
  36. Muscarella LF, Pathak AS, Takashirna, et al. Quantitative analysis of the Landis method.  Microvasc Res 1993;45(1):46-64.
  37. Muscarella LF, Vasthare U, Tuma RF, et al. The effect of ultrasound on regional cerebral blood flow in neonatal rats. UItrasound Med Biol 1991;17(9):893-899.
  38. Salotto AG, Muscarella LF, Melbin J, et al. Pressure pulse transmission into vascular beds. Microvasc Res 1986; 32:152-163.

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